Nano materials are the materials which are in the three-dimensional space, at least one dimension in nanometer scale range (1-100nm) or as the basic unit, which is about the same size as 10~100 atoms.
From the size, usually produce significant changes in physical and chemical properties of fine particles in the size of 0.1 microns (Note: 1 meters =1000 mm, 1 mm =1000 micron, 1 micron, 100 nm =1000 nm) is the following.
Therefore, the particle size in the 1 ~ the particle is called the ultra fine particle material, is also one kind of nanometer material.
Nano structural materials referred to as nano materials (material nanometer), refers to the size of the structure unit is between 1 nm to 100 nm range.
Since its size is close to the coherence length of the electron, its properties are greatly changed due to the self-organization of the strong coherence.
Also, the scale is close to the wavelength of light, it has special effect of the surface, so its performance characteristics, such as melting point, magnetic, optical, thermal, electrical conductivity and so on, are often different in nature of the substance in the overall state of the.
Nano particle materials, also known as ultrafine particles, by particle nano.
Nanoparticles are also called ultrafine particles, generally refers to the size of particles between 1 ~ 100nm, is in the transition region between the atomic clusters and macro objects, from the general point of view of micro and macro.
Such a system, which is a typical mesoscopic system, is a typical mesoscopic system, which has a surface effect, small size effect and macroscopic quantum tunneling effect.
When the macroscopic object is subdivided into micro particles (nano scale), it will show many peculiar characteristics, namely, its optical, thermal, electrical, magnetic, mechanical
As well as chemical properties and bulk solids when compared to a significant difference.
The broad range of nanotechnology can include nano materials technology and nano processing technology, material technology focused on the production of nano functional materials (ultra micro powder, coating, nano modified materials, etc.).
Performance testing techniques (chemical composition, microstructure, surface morphology, physical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, thermal and optical properties). Nano machining technology includes precision machining technology (energy beam processing, etc.) and scanning probe technology.
Nano materials have some unique properties, when the material size is small to a certain extent, it is necessary to use quantum mechanics to replace the traditional mechanical point of view to describe its behavior.
When the particle size is reduced from 10 microns to 10 nm, the particle size is changed to 1000 times, but when converted into volume, there will be 9 times of the 10 times of the giant, so the two acts will have a significant difference.
The reason that the nanoparticles are different from the bulk material is relatively larger in the surface area, that is, the surface of the ultrafine particles is full of ladder like structure, which represents the unstable atoms with high surface energy.
This kind of atom is very easy to be bonded with the foreign atoms, and it can provide the active atom with large surface due to the reduction of particle size.
Nano materials due to particle number increased, the surface area becomes great, which resulted in the particle interface on the atomic ratio is very high, usually can reach about half of the total number of atoms of.
Therefore, nano materials often have a strange light, electric, magnetic, thermal, mechanical and chemical aspects of the nature, and the macro material is different. For example, the melting point of gold is 1063 ~ C, such as gold nano powder, melting point can be reduced to 330 DEG C; the melting point of silver is 961 ~ C, made of silver nanoparticles after melting point can be reduced to 100 DEG C.
Made of nano materials as some catalysts, the surface area is larger, the activity increased, the catalytic reaction temperature can be decreased for several Baidu.
The common magnetic material are more magnetic area aggregate, when the particle size as small as the area cannot separate magnetic zone is formed of single domain magnetic material.
Therefore, when the magnetic material is made into an ultrafine particle or a thin film, the magnetic material is excellent.
The particle size (10 nm to 100 nm) is smaller than the wavelength of the optical wavelength, so it will produce complex interaction with the incident light.
Under appropriate conditions of evaporation and deposition, the black metallic ultrafine particles, which are easy to absorb light, are obtained, which is called as metal black. This is a strong contrast with the metal in the vacuum coating.
Nano materials can be used in infrared sensor materials because of their large optical absorption rate.